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About Iran
:: Iranian Innovations : Contributions of Iranian to the world civilization ::

 Professor Arthur A. Pope, the famous Orientalist, believes that the world owes its greatest industrial developments, in the early stages, to the Persian Civilization. Another Orientalist, the French Professor Kalamar of the Sorbonne University of Paris believes that: The Persian Civilization is the mother of all civilizations. Here are some of the most important contributions of the people of Persia or Iran, to the world civilization.

     • Air conditioning

  In Iran certain traditional building designs achieve more than a flattening of the temperature curve: they circulate cool air through the building without any input of energy. Some of these systems, for example curved-roof systems were incorporated in buildings as early as 3000 B.C.; others, for example wind tower systems may not have appeared until about 900 A.D.(more)

  (Report in Scientific American February 1976)

     •  Check

  Professor Girshman: "how many financiers and bankers know, for example, that the word 'check' or the word 'avaliser' come from the Pahlavi language and were invented by the Iranian banking institutions of this remote age?  The Christian traders of Syria borrowed the bill from Iran, and introduced it into the West." (more)

  (Report in Iran: from the earliest times to the Islamic conquest. Penguin books,1954) 

     • Icehouse

  Several shallow ponds, 10 to 20 meters wide on a north-south axis and several hundred meters long, are filled with cold water on winter nights. A tall adobe wall on the south side of each pond and lower walls at the east and west ends shield the pond from the wind.. On the following day, the ice is cut up and  placed in a covered storage pit 10 to 15 meters deep. The walls shade the pond during the day so that the ice does not melt.(more)

  (Report in Scientific American February 1976)

     •  Persian wheel

  Persian wheel is a partly submerged vertical wheel with buckets attached to the rim. As the wheel is turned by draft animals rotating a geared horizontal wheel, the buckets are filled and emptied into a trough above that carries the water to crop fields.(more)

  (Report in Encarta, Irrigationl)

     •  Poker
  The principles of poker may date back to ancient times but the game’s actual origins are unclear. Early forms may have included an Asian betting game dating to the 10th century ad and a Persian game known as às nàs.(more

  (Report in Encarta, Poker)

     •  Polo

  Authorities generally believe that it was first played in Persia hundreds of years before the Christian era and subsequently spread to other Asian countries, including Tibet, India, China, and Japan. The game was particularly popular in India in the 16th century.(more)

  (Report in BBC News,By Frances Harrison)

     •  Postal system

  The idea of relays appears to have originated in the Persian Empire in the 6th Century BC, though it may have been copied from the Assyrians. Parts of the well organised Persian systems outlived the Persian Empire and continued to operate in Egypt, where it was seen and copied by Augustus, the first Emperor of Rome (30 BC- 14 AD). (more)

  (Report in Bath Postal Museum Website) 

     •  Qanat

  About 3000 years ago, farmers found that they could greatly increase the flow of water to their fields by digging a gently sloping tunnel, or qanat, from the mouth of a spring back towards its mountain source. And so these ingenious farmers secured the water that supported the Persian empire.(more)

  (Report in NewScientist 19 March 2005)

  There are an estimated 40 000 qanats in Iran. End to end, they would reach two-thirds of the way to the Moon - a vast engineering endeavour that dwarfs construction of the Egyptian pyramids or the Great Wall of China. The longest qanats run for more than 40 kilometres. One giant tunnel near Gonabad in eastern Iran has a mother well more than 300 metres deep. And qanats may still supply up to half of the Iran's water, according to Henri Goblot, a French water engineer.(more)

  (Report in NewScientist 01 April 1995)

     •  Quasicrystal

  Islamic artisans seem to have developed a procedure for creating jigsawlike mosaics that ultimately led them to an exotic pattern that mathematicians would discover nearly half a millennium later. Researchers report that 15th-century buildings in Iran feature tiles arranged in a so-called quasicrystal, which is symmetric but does not repeat itself regularly.(more)

  (Report in Scientific American February 22, 2007)

     • Roads  

  One of the first preplanned roads was the Persian Royal Road, built by Darius I in 500 bc in what is now Iran. The Royal Road was about 2,400 km (about 1,500 mi) long and stretched throughout ancient Persia. The road was constructed for royal use, and it allowed Darius to keep informed, to convey orders, and to transport goods needed by the royal court.(more)

  (Report in Encarta, Road)   

     • Trousers

  The Persians, based in what is now Iran, ruled an empire in the 6th century bc that included most of the Middle East and Egypt. They introduced two garments to the history of clothing: trousers and seamed fitted coats, both probably first made from animal skins. People who rode horses valued trousers for use when astride, and in that capacity trousers spread to China and India, as well as to the Celtic peoples of northern Europe. (more

  (Report in Encarta, Clothing)

     • Windmill

  Wind-driven mills are of ancient origin. Simple windmills may have been used in Persia (now Iran) as early as the 7th century ad. They were used for irrigation and milling grain. The wheel bearing the wind sails of the earliest windmills was horizontal and supported by a vertical shaft. These machines were relatively inefficient. Nevertheless, this type of windmill spread to China and throughout the Middle East.(more)

  (Report in Britannica, Windmill)

  
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